New Manufacturing Method of Glass Foam by Cold Expansion of Glass Waste

  • Lucian Paunescu Daily Sourcing & Research SRL Bucharest
  • Sorin Mircea Axinte Daily Sourcing & Research SRL Bucharest, Romania & Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, Romania
  • Bogdan Valentin Paunescu Consitrans SA Bucharest, Romania
Keywords: Glass Foam, Glass Waste, Aluminum Powder, Foaming Agent, Room Temperature



An innovation cold manufacturing method of glass foams is presented in the paper. Traditional foaming agents used in conventional expansion processes of glass waste at high temperature were substituted with aluminium powder in aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide, which releases hydrogen forming gas bubbles in the viscous sludge and then, by solidification, a porous structure typical for the glass foam. The manufactured foam is adequate for using as a thermal insulation material for inner wall of buildings, having the apparent density of 0.31 g·cm-3, the thermal conductivity of 0.070 W/m·K and the compressive strength of 1.32 MPa. The process originality is the use of recycled aluminum waste, melted by an own microwave heating technique and sprayed with nitrogen jets. The process effectiveness is remarkable in economical and energy terms.


Anovitz, L.M., & Cole, D.R. (2005). Characterization and analysis of porosity and pore structures. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 80, 61-164.

Axinte, S.M., Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M.F., & Sebe, A.C. (2019). Manufacture of glass foam by predominantly direct microwave heating of recycled glass waste. Transactions on Networks and Communications, (7)4, 37-45.

Bourguignon, D. (2015). Understanding waste streams-Treatment of specific waste. European Parliamentary Research Service.

Dragoescu, M.F., Paunescu, L., Axinte, S.M., & Fiti, A. (2018). Influence of the color of bottle glass waste on the characteristics of foam glass produced in microwave field, International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations, 7(72), 95-100.

Ergun, R., Guo, J., & Huebner-Keese, B. (2016). Cellulose-Carboxymethyl cellulose, Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 694-702. Available from:

Foam Glass Manufacturing. (2014). Energocell Foam Glass, Debrecen, Hungary. Available from:

Harder, J. (2018). Glass recycling-Current market trends. Available from:

Hurley, J. (2003). Glass-Research and Development, Final report. A UK market survey for foam glass. The Waste and Resources Action Programme Publication, Banbury-Oxon, UK.

Innovative non-ferrous waste and WEEE processing technology using the microwave energy. ECOWAVNEFDE project financed by the European Regional Development Fund. Junkoeko SRL Slobozia (Romania)-press release (2019). Available from:

Kaneshira, S., Kanamori, S., Nagashima, K., Saeki, T., Visbal, H., Fukui, T., & Hirao, K. (2013). Controllable hydrogen release via aluminium powder corrosion in calcium hydroxide solutions. Asian Ceramic Societies, 1(3), 296-303.

Key figures on glass recycling worldwide as of 2018. (2020). Available from:

Kharissova, O., Kharissov, B.I., & Ruiz Valdés, J.J. (2010). Review: The use of microwave irradiation in the processing of glasses and their composites. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49(4), 1457-1466.

Malpohl, K., & Hillen, R. (2010). Aluminium melting furnaces for die casting. Striko Westofen Group. Available from:

Manual of weighing applications, Part 1, Density. (1999). Available from:

Paunescu, B.V., & Paunescu, L. (2020). Lightweight aggregate made by microwave irradiation. Constructii, 24(2), 57-63.

Paunescu, L., Axinte, S.M., Dragoescu, M.F., & Cosmulescu, F. (2020). Experimental use of microwaves in the high temperature foaming process of glass waste to manufacture heat insulating materials in building construction. Journal La Multiapp, 1(3), 17-26.

Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M. F., Axinte, S. M., & Sebe, A. C. (2019). Nonconventional technique for producing high mechanical glass foam from glass waste. Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, 25(2), 48 – 55.

Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M.F., Axinte, S.M., & Cosmulescu, F. (2021). Nonconventional manufacture technique of cellular glass foam recycled aluminosilicate glass-based waste. Material Science & Engineering International Journal, 5(1), 11-16.

Scarinci, G., Brusatin, G., & Bernardo, E. (2005). Foam Glass. In Cellular Ceramics: Structure, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications (pp. 158-176). Wiley-VCH GmbH & KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. M. Scheffler & P. Colombo (eds.).

Trading economics-aluminum (2021). Available from:

Zeren, D., Güden, H., Sentürk, U. (2017). Room temperature foaming of glass powder in aqueous environment. Engineering Conferences International ECI: Syntactic and Composite Foams V, Siracusa, Italy, March 26-31.

How to Cite
Paunescu, L., Axinte, S. M., & Paunescu, B. V. (2021). New Manufacturing Method of Glass Foam by Cold Expansion of Glass Waste. Journal La Multiapp, 2(3), 1-9.