Manufacture of Cellular Glass Using Oak Leaves as a Foaming Vegetable Agent

  • Lucian Paunescu Daily Sourcing & Research SRL Bucharest, Romania
  • Sorin Mircea Axinte Daily Sourcing & Research SRL Bucharest + Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University "Politehnica" of Bucharest, Romania
  • Marius Florin Dragoescu Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University "Politehnica" of Bucharest, Romania
  • Felicia Cosmulescu Cosfel Actual SRL Bucharest, Romania
Keywords: Cellular Glass, Microwave, Glass Waste, Foaming Agent



The manufacture experimentation of a cellular glass exclusively from mineral waste and natural residues using the unconventional technique of microwave irradiation was the objective of the research whose results are presented in the paper. The originality of the paper results from the use of oak leaves as a vegetable foaming agent as well as the use of microwave energy in heating processes of the raw material powder mixture for manufacturing thermal insulating materials for the building construction. Worldwide, these processes use only conventional heating techniques. The experimental results led to the conclusion that both the use of waste and residues, as well as the unconventional heating technique allow to obtain porous materials with structural homogeneity having apparent densities and thermal conductivities that can decrease up to 0.34 g/cm3, and 0.071 W/m·K respectively. The compressive strength corresponding to the materials with the lowest values of density and thermal conductivity has an acceptable value (1.2 MPa) for the field of application. The specific energy consumption is around 1 kWh/kg, being approximately at the same level with the values of industrial consumptions achieved by conventional techniques.


Anovitz, L.M., & Cole, D.R. (2005). Characterization and analysis of porosity and pore structures. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 80, 61-164.

Arcaro, S., Goulart de Oliveira, B., Tramontin Souza, M., Cesconeto, F.R., Granados, L. & Novaes de Oliveira, A.P. (2016). Thermal insulating foams produced from glass waste and banana leaves. Material Research, 19(5), 1064 – 1069. Available from:

Attila, Y., Güden, M., & Tasdemirci, A. (2013). Foam glass processing using a polishing glass powder residue. Ceramics International, 39, 5869 – 5877.

Axinte, S.M., Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M.F., & Sebe A.C. (2019). Manufacture of glass foam by predominantly direct microwave heating of recycled glass waste. Transactions on Networks and Communications, 7(4), 37-45.

Da Silva, L.L., Nunes Ribeiro, L.C., Santacruz, G., Arcaro, S., Koop Alves, A., & Pérez Bergman, C. (2016). Glass foams produced from glass and yerba mate (Ilex paraguarinensis). FME Transactions, 46, 70-79. Available from:

Demibas, A. (2004). Combustion characteristics of different biomass fuels. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 30(2), 219-230.

Fernandes, H.R., Andreola, F., Barbieri, I., Lancellotti, I., Pascual, M.J., & Ferreira, J.M.F. (2013). The use of egg shells to produce cathode ray tube (CRT) glass foams. Ceramics International, 39, 9071 – 9078.

Hesky, D., Aneziris, C.G., Gross, U., &. Horn, A. (2015). Water and waterglass mixtures for foam glass production. Ceramics International, Part A, 41(10), 12604 – 12613.

Jones, D.A., Lelyveld, T.P., Mavrofidis, S.D., Kingman, S.W., & Miles, N.J. (2002). Microwave heating applications in environmental engineering-a review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 34, 75-90.

Kharissova, O., Kharissov, B.I., & Ruiz Valdés, J.J. (2010). Review: The use of microwave irradiation in the processing of glasses and their composites. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49(4), 1457-1466.

Kolberg, U., & Roemer, M. (2001). Reacting of glass. Ceramic Transaction, 111, 517-523.

Lunip, A.V., Kanagesan, S., Aziz, S.A.B., & Chandra Rao, B.P. (2016). Physical properties of foam glass ceramics prepared by cathode ray tube panel glass and clam shell. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research, 5(7), 2344 – 2352.

Magalhães da Silva, S.P., da Costa Lopes, A.M., Roseiro, L.B., & Bogel-Lukasik, R. (2013). Novel pre-treatment and fractionation method for lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids. The Royal Society of Chemistry, 3, 16040-16050. Available from:

Makkar, H.P.S., & Singh, B. (1991a). Distribution of condensed tannins (proanthocyanalins) in various fibre fractions in young and mature leaves of some oak species. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 32 (4), 253-260. Available from:

Makkar, H.P.S., & Singh, B. (1991b). Composition, tannin levels and in-sacco dry matter digestibility of fresh and fallen oak (Quercus incana) lieves. Bioresource Technology, 37(2), 185-187. Available from:

Manual of weighing applications, Part 1, Density. (1999). Available from:

Owoeye, S.S., Matthew, G.O., Ovienmhanda, F.O., & Tunmilayo, S.C. (2020). Preparation and characterization of foam glass from waste container glasses and water glass for application in thermal insulations. Ceramic International. Available from:

Paunescu, L., Axinte, S.M., Grigoras, B.T., Dragoescu, M.F., & Fiti, A. (2017a). Testing the use of microwave energy to produce foam glass. European Journal of Engineering and Technology, 5 (4), 8-17.

Paunescu, L., Grigoras, B.T., Dragoescu, M.F., Axinte, S.M., & Fiti, A. (2017b). Foam glass produced by microwave heating technique. Bulletin of Romanian Chemical Engineering Society, 4(1), 98-108.

Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M.F., & Axinte, S.M. (2020a). Foam glass gravel from recycled glass waste produced with the microwave energy. Nonconventional Technologies Review, 24 (2), 22-28.

Paunescu, L., Axinte, S.M., Dragoescu, M.F., & Cosmulescu, F. (2020b). Experimental use of microwaves in the high temperature foaming process of glass waste to manufacture heat insulating material in building construction. Journal La Multiapp, 1(3), 17-26.

Qu, Y.N., Xu, J., Su, Z.G., & Ma, N. (2015). Lightweight and high-strength glass foams prepared by a novel green spheres hollowing technique. Ceramics International, 42(2). Available from:

Rahaman, M.N. (2007). Sintering of ceramics, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York. Available from:

Scarinci, G., Brusatin, G., & Bernardo, E. (2005). Foam Glass. In Cellular Ceramics: Structure, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications (pp. 158-176). Wiley-VCH GmbH & KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. M. Scheffler & P. Colombo (eds.).

Vancea, C. & Lazau, I. (2014). Glass foam from window panes and bottle glass wastes. Central European Journal of Chemistry, 12(7), 804 – 811.

How to Cite
Paunescu, L., Axinte, S. M., Dragoescu, M. F., & Cosmulescu, F. (2020). Manufacture of Cellular Glass Using Oak Leaves as a Foaming Vegetable Agent. Journal La Multiapp, 1(4), 18-27.